What is Fabric GSM and How to Measure It?
What is Fabric GSM
GSM stands for “Gram per Square Meter.” Therefore, we can say it’s a measure of fabric density, i.e., the weight of the fabric per square meter. By evaluating the fabric GSM value, we can assess whether the fabric is heavy or lightweight. The higher the GSM, the heavier it weighs and vice versa. It’s an essential parameter in the textile sector for obvious reasons. We can’t characterize a fabric without mentioning it. We can measure GSM for all types of fabrics. It’s an essential parameter of the garments ordering process. Thus, maintaining it in all stages of the production is of utmost importance. For this, every textile engineer, specially merchandiser of woven and knit garments, should know the GSM calculation to execute the order properly. Now, we must remember that while fabric GSM gives us the idea of its weight it’s not a clear indicator of its thickness. The fabric thickness mainly depends on its structure/ construction.
What Is Crimp Factor or Crimp Percentage?
During the calculation of fabric GSM, the crimp factor may be needed sometimes, and for that reason, we have to know the crimp percentage. Warp and weft yarns are used to form fabrics. These two sets of threads, i.e., warp and weft yarns, create the structure of cloth by interlacing with each other. Due to the interlacing of these two sets of yarn, a wavy structure formed. This waviness is called Crimp. And Crimp always expressed in percentage. Here, the yarn loses its length while forming a wavy formation. The normal length of the yarn is longer than the interlaced one. That means the threads that are used to create interlacing lose its length due to wavy formation. Suppose a yarn whose length is 5.5 meter in normal or in straight condition, but when it interlaces with another one and form a fabric, then it loses its length, and the length is 5 meter(0.5 meter loss).
Crimp Percentage Measurement
GSM Calculation Method for Woven Fabric
GSM Calculation Method for Knit Fabric
GSM Cutter Machine
How Does GSM Cutter Machine Work
Basically, the GSM cutter machine works through its Four highly sharp blades. The blades are fitted inside the machine and sorted out in a pattern as every blade can participate in cutting in sequential order and cut the fabric very smoothly. A plate covers the outer part in which blades lie inside. As the blades are highly sharp, so we have to be careful while cutting fabric. There are machines of various diameters, but for use in textiles, the ideal diameter is about 11.2 cm. A cutting pad is an inescapable item for GSM cutter. It is also known as GSM PAD. GSM pad is mainly used to avoid crinkles and crease from the fabric during cutting. It helps to get the actual value of GSM.
How to Measure Fabric GSM by a GSM Cutter Machine
What is GSM Tester?
GSM tester is a type of machine through which the GSM value is obtained by cutting a sample from the main fabric directly.
How is GSM Calculated?
GSM could be calculated in different ways. But the most commonly used calculation system is “GSM Cutter Machine.” Through this machine, five different samples of the same fabric are examined, and the mean value is multiplied with 100, and the result is the GSM, which is in oz/yard². We have described the process in detail above.
What does 300GSM mean?
It simply means one square meter of that fabric weighs 300 gm. We know that higher GSM fabric is substantial, and lower GSM fabric is lightweight. According to the GSM value, the fabrics are generally categorized in the following ways – 30 to 150 GSM is lightweight; 150 to 350 GSM is the medium or standard value; More than 350+ GSM is known as heavyweight or more substantial fabric.
Why GSM is a crucial term when looking for a specific fabric?
It’s vital because the weight of the fabric depends on this value. The higher the GSM of a fabric is the higher the weight. Thus, if two fabrics are composed of the same material, than the one that has a higher GSM value will cost you more. It’ll be thicker also.
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